To transform our energy sources to carbon neutrality, we need to power as much of modern society as possible with clean electricity. In doing so, electricity generated from solar and wind sources requires energy storage. To meet today’s tough demands, however, energy storage designs must do many things – store more energy, charge faster, be capable of mass production, decrease costs for the consumer, be safe and be made of materials that minimize harm to the environment. We can now address these issues not only through the overall battery chemistry, but also by observing the structure and operation of batteries at the nano – and even the atomic scale. In this talk, I will present some new ideas about the design of batteries – from electric vehicles to consumer power on the grid – and share my perspective on the path to the batteries of the future.